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                                                     Draper Expansion, 1856 – 1886

    After the Draper Company took possession of Hopedale in 1856, it first enlarged the factories to
    improve the productive capability of the industrial site that had been partially laid out by the earlier
    community. Water Street along the Mill River was extended south and Union Street was brought
    across to tie in, laying the way for industrial expansion. Near the upper end of Water Street sat two
    factory buildings, one of which was already outfitted with a waterwheel to operate a trip-hammer and
    lathe. It was this building, completed in 1843, that was known as the “mechanic shop” and that first
    housed the Drapers’ enterprise as well as other small businesses and also served for a time as a
    school. The second building went up three years later, in 1846, providing more space and relieving
    the crowed quarters of the older shop. Named the “cabinet shop” and measuring thirty by forty feet in
    plan, this second building was also of frame construction, though two stories in height. In 1855, a
    state census on manufacturing recorded the proceeds from these two shops as fifteen thousand
    dollars in the value of machinery made; operating capital was listed as five thousand dollars. In
    addition to the shops, several outbuildings, including stables and sheds, also located on Water
    Street, composed a part of the industrial site. The shops and attendant buildings formed a nucleus
    around which the company town developed.

    In 1856 the Drapers persuaded Warren W. Dutcher, inventor of an improved temple, to move to
    Hopedale and manage a division of the company. Absorbing a competitor expanded the business
    while retaining market control. Though the brothers purchased the inventor’s patent and operation,
    they permitted him to manufacture under his own name. Carried on as W.W. Dutcher Temple
    Company, the temple division continued to monopolize the trade. Sales were made through E.D. and
    G. Draper Company. Dutcher moved into the old cabinet shop before constructing a three-story
    building beside in it 1860 (also frame and thirty by forty feet) and a new brick factory in 1868. The new
    factory contained a boiler and enginehouse to supplement water power and provided three floors of
    work space. The small mechanic shop was renamed the Hopedale Machine Company in 1868 and
    transferred to the west side of the river to make room for additional construction. Joseph B. Bancroft,
    George Draper’s brother-in-law, superintended this new division after having worked in the shops
    since 1847. Again, sales were handled by the Draper Company. For a time Massachusetts required
    different manufacturing processes even in one enterprise to keep separate records for purposes of
    inventory and tax. Therefore, the company operated under several trade names before being
    renamed as simply the Draper Company in 1897, though principal ownership and all partnerships
    had always resided in the family.

    The overall organization and layout of the industrial site continued to change as the company
    extended its line of machinery. George Draper acquired a monopoly on spindles after purchasing the
    inventions of J.Herbert Sawyer of Lowell in 1871 and F.J. Rabbeth of Pawtucket in 1878. As with
    Dutcher, Draper brought Sawyer to Hopedale to set up and run his own department. By 1874, the
    number of buildings had multiplied from two to twenty, providing space for three machine shops, two
    foundries, two finishing mills, one pattern shop, plus sheds for coal, lumber, and other stores, one
    livery stable, and an office building. Power for operating the mills increased from an original forty-
    horsepower waterwheel on a thirteen-foot fall beneath the upper privilege to two hundred
    horsepower produced by a combination of water turbines and steam engines. The turbines were
    located at a second dam on the lower privilege. The company’s dependence on waterpower
    produced a linear industrial site that extended along the upper and lower privileges. Further
    separation of factories was produced by the company’s departmentalization. Castings, spindles,
    machine screws, and so on were manufactured at the northern end of the industrial site, and
    temples were made at the southern end. Gradually, with the introduction of steam engines and
    further site development, new buildings began filling in the open spaces. The Model Company Town,
    John S. Garner, pp. 128 – 135.

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